Drawings


Home Project Publications Photos, Videos Drawings Measurements General References About Us


Maps and Orientations Agia Triada Chamaizi Gournia Juktas Knossos Malia Modi Petsophas Phaistos Philioremos Pyrgos Traostalos Tylissos Vathypetro Zakros

Maps

(Top)

map of Crete with project sites
Archaeological sites on Crete in the Uppsala Archaeoastronomical Project. Latitude for Knossos: 35°17'53" N.
 
map with navigation lines from Petsophas

 
map with orientations of the walls A'A and AB lines on Petsophas and Traostalos relative to the circumpolar stars

 

Orientations

(Top) orientations of the buildings in the project

orientations of Mycenaean cult rooms in Hellas

orientations of passages graves on Crete and in Hellas

(Top)

Agia Triada

(Top)

Color plan of Agia Triada
Plan of the villa, adapted from Ancient Crete. A Hundred Years of Italian Archaeology (1884-1984), with permission
 
plan of Agia Triada with orientations
The orientations at Agia Triada with mesurements made in 1994 and 1997. On the plan from Myers, Myers & Cadogan (1992:79). With permission.
 

(Top)

Chamaizi

(Top)

plan of the house at Chamaizi
Plan of the oval house at Chamaizi. Rotated plan from Myers, Myers & Cadogan (1992:79). With permission.
 
measuring points at Chamaizi
Measurings points and orientations at Chamaizi, using photo from Myers, Myers & Cadogan (1992:79). With permission.
 
heliacal setting of Arcturus
sunrise at the summer solstice
 
sunsets at the solstices and equinoxe at Chamaizi

(Top)

Gournia, MM II and LM IA houses

(Top)

Town plan of Gournia
Town plan of Gournia
 
the so-called palace at Gournia

 
plan of the northern shrine
Plan of the northern shrine. From Hawes and Williams (1908).
 
Sunrise from the Northern shrine

 
Sunrise from the Southern shrine

 
Sunset from the Mycenaean shrine

 

(Top)

Juktas, peak sanctuary

(Top)

plan of the peak sanctuary on Juktas
Plan of the peak sanctuary on Mt Juktas
 

sunrise at the autumn equinox 2000 BCE and 11 days before and after
Sunrise at the autumn equinox 2000 BCE and 11 days before and after, as observed from the altar at the peak sanctuary on the 811 m high Mt Juktas.
 

plan of the ramp 


sunrise on the autumn equinox 2000 BCE as seen from the ramp

 

sunrise 11 days before and after the equinoxes as seen from the ramp

 

(Top)

Knossos, palace, South-east house

(Top)

A map of the Knossos area
The Knossos area. From Myers Myers and Cadogan 1992, with permission.
 

plan of the palace
Plan of the palace. Base on the place from Myers Myers and Cadogan 1992, with permission.
 

Measured present Central Palace Sanctuary
Present Central Palace Sanctuary.Based on Hood and Taylor 1981, with premission.
 

Reconstruction of the original Central Palace Sanctuary.
From Dreissen 1990, with permission.
 

Drawing of the Corridor of the House Tablets from the north
Section of the Corridor of the House Tablets from the north. By Allan Klynne
 

Angle from the bowl to the top of the Ailias ridge.
Angle from the bowl to the top of the Ailias ridge. Based on Hood and Taylor; by Mary Blomberg.
 

Sunrise at the equinox autumn equinox and 11 days later at Knossos
Sunrise at the autumn equinox and 11 days later at Knossos
 

The Minoan double axe constellation as reconstructed from Orion

 

The Minoan double axe constellation as reconstructed from Orion

 

The plan of sunrise in the pillar crypt of the south-east house
Sunrise in the pillar crypt of the South-east house

(Top)

Malia, palace

(Top)

Plan of the palace at Malia

 
Sunrise from the pillar crypt

 
Alignment to Sunrise from the kernos

 

(Top)

Modi, peak sanctuary

(Top)

Plan of the peak sanctuary and other structures on Modi
Plan of the peak sanctuary and other structures on Modi
 
Sunset behind Modi at the autumn equinox as observed from Petsophas in the year 1997 BCE
Sunset behind Modi at the autumn equinox as observed from Petsophas 20, 21 and 22 September
in the year 1997 BCE (refraction for t=+10°C). The relationship is valid for many centuries.
 
Sunset behind Modi at the spring equinox as observed from Petsophas in 1997 BCE
Sunset behind Modi at the spring equinox as observed from Petsophas 20, 21 and 22 March
in the year 1997 BCE (refraction for t =+10°C). The relationship is valid for many centuries.
 
heliacal setting of Arcturus behind the peak of Modi as seen from Traostalos
The heliacal setting of Arcturus above Modi, 13 October 1731 BCE at 6:00 pm, observed from Traostalos.
The heliacal setting is the last time a star is visible in the evening sky after sunset. On the following
evening it will have reached the western horizon while there is still too much light for it be seen.
 
heliacal setting of Arcturus behind the peak of Modi as seen from Traostalos
The heliacal setting of Arcturus above the peak of Modi as observed from Traostalos in the years 1631, 1731 and 1831.
 

(Top)

Petsophas, peak sanctuary

(Top)

Plan of the peak sanctuary on Petsophas with orientations of the walls
 
The peak sanctuary on Petsophas in Myres' excavation report (pl VII, <i>BSA</i> 9, 1902-1903
 
Digital model of Petsophas and Karpathos
 
Sunrise at the summer solstice above Kali Limni, highest mountain on Karpathos, 23 June 3600 BCE as seen from Petsophas
 
Sunrise at the summer solstice above Kali Limni, highest mountain on Karpathos,
Theoretically calculated position of sunrise at the summer solstice above Kali Limni, Karpathos' highest peak (H. 1215 m),
23 June 2000 BCE, 04.39.35 o'clock local mean solar time (sun on the left), as it would have been observed from the peak sanctuary on Petsophas (H. 255 m). The sanctuary's axis of symmetry has the orientation 60.4° ± 1.0°, which in view of the margin of error coincides with the orientation to sunrise at the summer solstice (59.86°) when the sanctuary was built. Karpathos' profile has been digitised from a photograph that was calibrated with theodolite measurements. The figure shows the sun 10 seconds after the time when, according to the calculations, the first rays of the sun would have been visible above Karpathos, which is ca 90 km away. The sun on the right shows sunrise 21 June 2000 CE, 05.01.38 o'clock Greek standard time. Refraction calculated for +20°C and atmospheric pressure 760 mm Hg.
 
Beacons from mountain peaks near Zakros
Beacons from mountain peaks near Zakros. They may have been for ships or for communication over the island.
After a Venetian map of 1615 (Davaras 1976, p. 237).
 
Orientation of the walls on Petsophas and Traostalos with respect to the circumpolar stars
Orientation of the walls AA' and AB on Petsophas, above [P(A')] and [P(B)], and AA', AB and BY on Traostalos,
above [T(A')], [T(B)] and [T(Y)]. The wall BY is oriented towards the extreme western limit for the circumpolar stars.
 
The measured azimuths of the walls AA’ and AB at Petsophas and Traostalos can be found on the
	vertical axis of the graph. The corresponding optimal years for observations of the heliacal rising and setting and the acronychal rising and cosmical setting 
	of Arcturus can be found on the horisontal axis. On the assumption that the walls were built at the same time in order to observe all four positions of Arcturus, 
	the mean construction date would be 1827 BC ± 77 years. 

The northern sky above Petsophas on 20 March 2000 BCE at 08.00pm
 
The northern sky above Petsophas on 20 March 2000 BCE at 08.00 pm.

(Top)

Phaistos, palace

(Top)

plan of the palace at Phaistos
Plan of the palace
 

(Top)

Philioremos, peak sanctuary

(Top)

Map of the area near Philioremos
Map of the area around Gonies and the 797m high Philioremos.
 
Orientations to sunrise from the peak sanctuary on Philioremos
Orientations to sunrise from the peak sanctuary on Philioremos near Gonies. Our measurements.
 
Several sunrises as seen from Philioremos

 
Sunrise at the summer solstice behind the peak of Stroumboulos as seen from Philioremos
Sunrise at the summer solstice behind the peak of Stroumboulos on 23 June 1950 BCE
as observed from the peak sanctuary on Philioremos.
 

(Top)

Pyrgos, peak sanctuary

(Top)

Plan of the peak sanctuary on Pyrgos
Plan of the peak sanctuary. The orientation of the wall BCE is to sunrise at the summer solstice. (59.3° ± 0.4°).
 
Sunrise at the sommer solstice on 22 June 2000 BCE
Sunrise at the sommer solstice on 22 June 2000 BCE, 04.34.38 local mean solar time. The horizon is the open sea, but the altitude where the sun becomes visible is very sensitive to variations in atmospheric refraction and extinction. The computed horizon altitude is -0.394° from a mountain with an altitude of 684 m above sea level. The computer azimuth for sunrise at this altitude is 59.18°. The refraction is
valid for T = +17°C and barometric pressure 760 mm Hg. The orientation of the inside of the northern wall is 59.28° ± 0.42°, determined by orthogonal regression of 11 measurements on preserved stones
of the wall. This means a deviation of only 0.10° from the most northerly sunrise at summer solstices.
 
The heliacal setting of Arcturus just before disappearing into the earth's atmosphere above the prominent peak Kaka Kefali at the beginning of the Middle Minoan Period, 
	    ca 2000 BCE.
The heliacal setting of Arcturus as observed from the peak sanctuary on Pyrgos just before disappearing into the earth's atmosphere above the prominent peak Kaka Kefali at the beginning of the Middle Minoan Period, ca 2000 BCE.
 

(Top)

Traostalos, peak sanctuary

(Top)

Graph showing the measured azimuths of the walls AA’ and AB at Petsophas and Traostalos

Arcturus as observed above the peak of Modi in 13/10/1731 BCE
The heliacal setting about the peak of Modi 13/10/1731 BCE at 06.00 pm, observed from Traostalos. The heliacal setting is the last time a star is visible in the evening sky after sunset.
 

(Top)

Tylissos, villas A and C

(Top)

Plan of the Minoan villas from Hazzidakis' excavation report
Plan of the Minoan villas from Hazzidakis' excavation report
 
Plan of the Minoan villas at Tylissos, from Hazzidakis
Plan of the Minoan villas oriented towards north, adapted from Hazzidakis
 
Orientations to sunrise at villa A
Orientations to sunrise at villa A
 
Orientations to sunrise at villa C
Orientations to sunrise at villa C

(Top)

Vathypetro, villa

(Top)

Plan of the villa at Vathypetro
Plan of the villa, oriented to north. From Myers Myers and Cadogan 1992, with permission.
 
Orientations from the center of the  main room at Vathypetro to sunrise at the equinox, one lunar month after the autumn equnox, and the winter solstice at Vathypetro


(Top)

Zakros, palace

(Top)

plan of the palace at Zakros
Plan of the palace. From Myers Myers and Cadogan 1992, with permission.
 
Moon rise at the southern major standstill from the palace at Zakros
Moon rise at the southern major standstill as seen from the palace
 

(Top)
Maps and Orientations Agia Triada Chamaizi Gournia Juktas Knossos Malia Modi Petsophas Phaistos Philioremos Pyrgos Traostalos Tylissos Vathypetro Zakros